Jared Hamilton and Nhan Tran and Tom Williams
3rd International Workshop on Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality for Human-Robot Interaction
Mixed reality visualizations provide a powerful new approach for enabling gestural capabilities for non-humanoid robots. This paper explores two different categories of mixed-reality deictic gestures for armless robots: a virtual arrow positioned over a target referent (a non-ego-sensitive allocentric gesture) and a virtual mounted positioned over the robot (an ego-sensitive allocentric gesture). We explore the trade-offs between these two types of gestures, with respect to both objective performance and subjective social perceptions. We conducted a 26-participant within-subjects experiment in which a HoloLens-wearing participant interacted with a robot that used these two types of gestures to refer to objects at two different distances. Our results demonstrate a clear trade-off between performance and social perception: non-ego-sensitive allocentric gestures led to quicker reaction time and higher accuracy, but ego-sensitive gesture led to higher perceived social presence, anthropomorphism, and likability. These results present a challenging design decision to creators of mixed reality robotic systems.