Jared Hamilton* and Thao Phung* and Nhan Tran and Tom Williams
Proceedings of the 16th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction
Mixed Reality visualizations provide a powerful new approach for enabling gestural capabilities on non-humanoid robots. This paper explores two different categories of mixed-reality deictic gestures for armless robots: a virtual arrow positioned over a target referent (a non-ego-sensitive allocentric gesture) and a virtual arm positioned over the gesturing robot (an ego-sensitive allocentric gesture). Specifically, we present the results of a within-subjects Mixed Reality HRI experiment (N=23) exploring the trade-offs between these two types of gestures with respect to both objective performance and subjective social perceptions. Our results show a clear trade-off between performance and social perception, with non-ego-sensitive allocentric gestures enabling faster reaction time and higher accuracy, but ego-sensitive gestures enabling higher perceived social presence, anthropomorphism, and likability.