Saad Elbeleidy and Elizabeth Reddy and Tom Williams


IEEE International Symposium on Robot-Human Interactive Communication

Publication Year

Some labor is overlooked or devalued, while necessary within the context of paid employment. This is "invisible labor". Invisible labor is often performed by minoritized groups and is typically invisible to those in power. Novel technologies can introduce new sociotechnical labor paradigms that reduce labor visibility. In this paper, we consider how invisible labor might manifest for teleoperated Socially Assistive Robots (SARs). By combining an analysis of the labor context of teleoperated SAR use with insights from interviews with SAR teleoperators, we demonstrate how invisible labor manifests in the practical deployment of teleoperated SARs. Finally, we provide recommendations for developers and policymakers to remedy this labor invisibility.